Friday, November 3, 2017

English Grammar - All About Coordinating Conjunctions (#cbseNotes)(#eduvictors)

English Grammar - All About Coordinating Conjunctions

English Grammar - All About Coordinating Conjunctions (#cbseNotes)(#eduvictors)

One of the common use of conjunctions is to connect words or phrases that have the same grammatical function.



Coordinating conjunctions help in forming co-ordinate clauses. See the following sentences

1. He worked hard, but he failed each time.

2. He solved the entire assignment and submitted to the class teacher.


In the above sentences, 'but' & 'and' are coordinating conjunctions. Commonly used coordinating conjunctions are:

and
or / either - or
nor / neither - nor
but
yet
as well as
too
not less than
however
nevertheless
therefore
so


Types of Coordinating conjunctions are:



There are four types:

1. Cumulative Conjunctions

2. Alternative Conjunctions

3. Adversative Conjunctions

4. Illative Conjunctions




1. Cumulative Conjunctions

Cumulative means addition by successive elements. Cumulative conjunctions connect two statements.

Commonly used cumulative conjunctions are: And, Both, Also, As well as, Now, Too, No less than.


Examples are:

i. My roommate is friendly and helpful. (adjective + and + adjective )

ii. Maya is a singer and an artist too. ( noun + and + noun + too)

iii. Krishna was studying and listening to the radio at the same time. (verb + and + verb)

iv. Rakesh as well as Mahesh is present.



Exercise: Combine the following two sentences using a conjunction or connector.

The man is wearing a hat.

The man is wearing a coat.


Solution: The man is wearing a hat and a coat.



2. Alternative Conjunctions

Alternative means choice. Alternative conjunctions connects sentences that provide choices.

Commonly used alternative conjunctions are: Either … or, Neither … nor, else, or, otherwise.


Examples are:

i. You must run fast else you'll miss the train.

ii. This book is neither interesting nor accurate.



Exercise: Join the following sentences using conjunctions.

i. Work hard. Repent forever.

ii. She must weep. She will die.


Solution:

i. Either work hard or repent forever.

ii. She must weep or she will die.



3. Adversative Conjunctions

Adversative means expressing opposition or contrariety. Such conjunctions join two sentences which are opposite to each other. Examples of adversative conjunctions are: but, yet, still, only, however, nevertheless, while, whereas etc.


Example sentences are:

i. I have stood first in my class but my younger brother has failed.

ii. Meena is wealthy, still she does not boast.

iii. Run fast, nevertheless, you miss the bus.
Solution

Exercise: Join the following sentences using conjunction.

I like tea. I do not like coffee.

Solution: I like tea but not coffee.


4. Illative Conjunctions

Illative to express inference or conclusions. Illative conjunctions join sentences in which one is result/conclusion or inference of the other sentence.


Commonly used illative conjunctions are: for, therefore, so then, so, then


Examples are:

i. We were absent because we were away on an outing.

ii. It is time to take a break, so let us order some pizza.

iii. It was raining heavily, therefore, we cancelled the meeting.


Exercise

Identify the type of conjunctions (Cumultavie/Adversative/Alternative/Illative) used in the following sentences


1. Trust in god and do the right.

2. He is poor but generous.

3. It is time to take rest, so let us go home.

4. Maya opened the door and welcomed her guests.

5. You may go or wait.

6. You will definitely pass the examination for you work hard.



Answers:

1. and (Cumulative)

2. but (Adversative)

3. so (illative)

4. and (Cumulative)

5. or (Alternative)

6. for (Illative)







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